What Is a Fixed-Rate Mortgage?
A fixed-rate mortgage is any home mortgage whose interest rate stays the same over the life of the loan, whether that lifespan is the traditional 30 years or 15 years, as some borrowers choose. The interest rate at the time you purchased your home is the same interest rate you pay from your first mortgage payment to your last at the end of the loan term. Fixed-rate mortgages protect homebuyers and homeowners from rising rates. Plus, with Fairway, you get the flexibility of selecting the length of your loan term: 10 years, 15 years,20 years, 25 years, or 30 years, depending on loan type. The shorter the loan term, the higher your monthly mortgage payment will be and the faster you will build equity in your home.
Fixed-Rate Mortgage Highlights
If you plan on staying in your home for a longer time frame, a fixed-rate mortgage could be the right solution for you since this option features:
- The interest rate stays the same over the life of the loan
- Protect you from rising rates in the future
- Predictability is the big plus
- Fairway offers fixed-rate loans with terms of 10 years, 15 years, 20 years, 25 years, and 30 years.
- ARM loan introductory rates may be lower than what you qualify for in a fixed-rate mortgage
15-Year Fixed Rate Pros and Cons
PROS: If you can afford its higher monthly payments, a 15-year loan offers several advantages:
- You build equity faster: Each month, you’d pay off a larger chunk of your housing debt, increasing the amount of equity, or ownership, you have in the home. With significant equity, you may be able to take out a home equity loan or home equity line of credit (HELOC) to pay for renovations or additions or to cover non-housing-related expenses.
- You could get a lower mortgage rate: Lenders take a smaller risk on 15-year mortgages, meaning you might qualify for a lower mortgage rate.
- You could cancel PMI sooner: On a conventional loan, you can cancel private mortgage insurance (PMI) once you have at least 20% equity in your home. You’d reach this landmark sooner with a shorter-term loan than a 30-year mortgage.
As you can see, paying more each month on a shorter-term loan can create new ways to save beyond the simple math of paying less interest.
CONS: A 15-year loan’s faster payoff also has a few drawbacks:
- Less flexibility: Sure, you can afford the higher payment now, but what if your income drops in a few years? A higher payment would be harder to make on less money. You could refinance to a 30-year loan at that point, but you’d pay closing costs on the new loan. And you may not qualify at that point.
- Less money available for non-housing expenses: Paying more for your house each month leaves less money available in your budget for other kinds of investing, saving, or different financial goals
- Your price range may shrink: A 15-year term’s higher payments may disqualify you from homes you could afford with a 30-year loan
This is why it’s important to consider all the angles before choosing your loan term.
30-Year Fixed Rate Pros and Cons
PROS: A 30-year loan offers:
- More flexibility in your budget: A lower house payment means you could probably save and invest more money each month. And you’d likely be less stressed making the payment during hard times.
- A bigger price range: Lenders must ensure your house payment fits your budget. Since a 30-year loan gives lenders more time to collect your mortgage debt, you may qualify to buy a larger or costlier home.
- You can choose to pay more: You can always pay more than your minimum monthly payment, allowing you to save on long-term interest without committing to a 15-year loan’s higher payments.
All this flexibility and borrowing power helps explain why most homebuyers choose 30-year fixed-rate mortgages. CONS: Of course, the lower payments of 30-year mortgages come with costs that include:
- Higher interest rates: On average, mortgage rates for 30-year fixed loans are higher than for 15-year mortgages
- Slower equity growth: You’ll pay more interest than principal in the early years of a 30-year term, which means your equity in the home grows slowly at first
- Higher mortgage insurance costs: If you put down less than 20% on a home, you’ll typically pay a monthly mortgage insurance fee until you have 20% equity on a conventional loan. The longer it takes to reach 20%, the more you pay in PMI.
You may find these costs worth paying if they help get you into a nicer and more spacious home. Every borrower should choose a loan term based on all the facts and not just payment amounts.
How to decide which loan term is for you?
A mortgage comparison calculator will show the effects of your mortgage term. This is valuable knowledge. But the calculator can’t decide which loan term is best for you. You’ll have to do that for yourself. Keep these factors in mind as you decide.
- How long will you stay in the home? A 15-year loan lowers your mortgage debt a lot faster, especially in the early years. So you’d have more to cash out if you sold the home within the first three to five years.
- Just how tight is your budget? If you’re unsure whether you can afford the payments on a 15-year loan, you probably shouldn’t risk it. This is true even if your lender approves the loan. You know your personal finances better than anyone, so make sure the payment amount is comfortable for you.
- Would you consider refinancing? Refinancing gives you a chance to change your loan term mid-stream. You’d pay closing costs on the new loan, but many homeowners find it worthwhile to revise their loan’s term or interest rate to save money once they’re several years into their mortgage. Knowing you can refinance takes some of the pressure off your loan term decision, knowing you can shorten it down the road.
- How does your risk tolerance play out? Some consumers hate being in debt, so they prefer a 15-year mortgage that lowers their mortgage balance more quickly. Others get more stressed about making a 15-year loan’s more expensive payments and prefer a 30-year term’s flexibility.
Some borrowers have no choice: They can qualify for their loan only with a 30-year term. But there are other ways to save on long-term borrowing costs, even with a 30-year loan.
Ways to save money on a fixed-rate mortgage
Shorter-term loans, on average, require lower interest rates than longer-term loans because the lender faces less risk. This opportunity for a lower rate adds even more to the long-term savings you’d get with a shorter-term loan. But choosing a 15-year loan isn’t the only way to lower your interest rate. You could also:
- Buy down your rate with discount points: If you can part with the cash, you could lower your 30-year fixed rate somewhat, making a one-time payment upfront. For instance, you could pay a 1% fee or an extra $3,000 on a $300,000 loan. This could decrease your rate and save a lot if you stick with the loan for a decade or more.
- Boost your credit score: Borrowers with higher credit scores can often secure lower rates on 30-year mortgages. Before applying for a mortgage, ensure your credit history is error-free and that you’re keeping non-housing debts low and all bills paid on time.
- Lower your DTI: Paying off some debt can also lower your debt-to-income ratio (DTI), which underwriters consider when you apply for a mortgage loan of any term.
- Put more money down: Larger-than-required down payments put lenders at ease because you’re putting more of your own money on the line. Less lender risk can mean lower interest rates for you.
- Use the right loan: Borrowers with lower credit scores may get lower interest rates with FHA loans instead of conventional loans. Homebuyers with military backgrounds should check out the VA loan program first since these loans typically offer the lowest interest rates, and there is no monthly mortgage insurance fee.
What's the difference between fixed rate and adjustable rate mortgages?
Fixed rate mortgages have a constant interest rate throughout the life of the loan, while adjustable rate mortgages (ARMs) have an interest rate that can fluctuate based on market conditions. One potential benefit of an ARM is that it may have a lower initial interest rate compared to a fixed rate mortgage. However, this is accompanied by a higher level of risk, as the interest rate on an ARM can increase over time, potentially leading to higher monthly payments. This unpredictability can make it difficult to budget and plan for future expenses. On the other hand, a fixed rate mortgage offers a more stable payment amount, making it easier to predict and budget for your monthly expenses. While the initial interest rate may be slightly higher than an ARM, it remains constant throughout the life of the loan, allowing you to accurately plan your finances. Overall, while adjustable rate mortgages may offer the potential for lower initial interest rates, they come with a higher level of risk and unpredictability compared to fixed rate mortgages.
- Loan term: The number of years your lender sets to pay off the loan. The most common loan term is 30 years, but 10, 15, 20, and 25-year loans are also available. Some lenders can even offer custom terms, such as 12 or 18 years.
- Mortgage rate: The rate at which you pay interest on the loan. For instance, a 4% mortgage rate means you pay $4,000 per year per $100,000 borrowed. Interest is broken up into 12 monthly installments and paid along with the principal. A special formula is used to keep your payment the same each month on a fixed-rate loan, even though your principal balance and interest paid are going down each month.
- Principal: The dollar amount owed.
- Interest: The cost to borrow, which is determined by your remaining principal loan balance and interest rate.
- Homeowners insurance: Lenders require you to maintain homeowners insurance, which pays for the home to be repaired or rebuilt in case of fire or another disaster. Most homes cost between $50-$100 per month to insure. Note that this insurance does not include flood or earthquake protection. Those policies can be as much or more than the standard homeowners insurance. If you need such policies, place the total insurance cost in this same box.
- Property tax: The amount levied by your local jurisdiction each year when you own property. It’s important to check property tax rates in the place you plan to buy since this cost can vary widely.